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- General considerations
- Light from the stars
- Stellar magnitudes
- Bulk stellar properties
- Stellar masses
- Stellar statistics
- Stellar structure
- Star formation and evolution
- Later stages of evolution
Star, any massive self-luminous celestial body of gas that shines by radiation derived from its internal energy sources. Of the tens of billions of trillions of stars composing the observable universe, only a very small percentage are visible to the naked eye. Many stars occur in pairs, multiple systems, or star clusters. The members of such stellar groups are physically related through common origin and are bound by mutual gravitational attraction. Somewhat related to star clusters are stellar associations, which consist of loose groups of physically similar stars that have insufficient mass as a group to remain together as an organization.
This article describes the properties and evolution of individual stars. Included in the discussion are the sizes, energetics, temperatures, masses, and chemical compositions of stars, as well as their distances and motions. The myriad other stars are compared with the Sun, strongly implying that “our” star is in no way special.
The Sun as a point of comparison
Variations in stellar size
With regard to mass, size, and intrinsic brightness, the Sun is a typical star. Its approximate mass is 2 × 1030 kg (about 330,000 Earth masses), its approximate radius 700,000 km (430,000 miles), and its approximate luminosity 4 × 1033 ergs per second (or equivalently 4 × 1023 kilowatts of power). Other stars often have their respective quantities measured in terms of those of the Sun.
Many stars vary in the amount of light they radiate. Stars such as Altair, Alpha Centauri A and B, and Procyon A are called dwarf stars; their dimensions are roughly comparable to those of the Sun. Sirius A and Vega, though much brighter, also are dwarf stars; their higher temperatures yield a larger rate of emission per unit area. Aldebaran A, Arcturus, and Capella A are examples of giant stars, whose dimensions are much larger than those of the Sun. Observations with an interferometer (an instrument that measures the angle subtended by the diameter of a star at the observer’s position), combined with parallax measurements (which yield a star’s distance; see below Determining stellar distances), give sizes of 12 and 22 solar radii for Arcturus and Aldebaran A. Betelgeuse and Antares A are examples of supergiant stars. The latter has a radius some 300 times that of the Sun, whereas the variable star Betelgeuse oscillates between roughly 300 and 600 solar radii. Several of the stellar class of white dwarf stars, which have low luminosities and high densities, also are among the brightest stars. Sirius B is a prime example, having a radius one-thousandth that of the Sun, which is comparable to the size of Earth. Also among the brightest stars are Rigel A, a young supergiant in the constellation Orion, and Canopus, a bright beacon in the Southern Hemisphere often used for spacecraft navigation.
Stellar activity and mass loss
The Sun’s activity is apparently not unique. It has been found that stars of many types are active and have stellar winds analogous to the solar wind. The importance and ubiquity of strong stellar winds became apparent only through advances in spaceborne ultraviolet and X-ray astronomy as well as in radio and infrared surface-based astronomy.
X-ray observations that were made during the early 1980s yielded some rather unexpected findings. They revealed that nearly all types of stars are surrounded by coronas having temperatures of one million kelvins (K) or more. Furthermore, all stars seemingly display active regions, including spots, flares, and prominences much like those of the Sun (see sunspot; solar flare; solar prominence). Some stars exhibit starspots so large that an entire face of the star is relatively dark, while others display flare activity thousands of times more intense than that on the Sun.
The highly luminous hot, blue stars have by far the strongest stellar winds. Observations of their ultraviolet spectra with telescopes on sounding rockets and spacecraft have shown that their wind speeds often reach 3,000 km (roughly 2,000 miles) per second, while losing mass at rates up to a billion times that of the solar wind. The corresponding mass-loss rates approach and sometimes exceed one hundred-thousandth of a solar mass per year, which means that one entire solar mass (perhaps a tenth of the total mass of the star) is carried away into space in a relatively short span of 100,000 years. Accordingly, the most luminous stars are thought to lose substantial fractions of their mass during their lifetimes, which are calculated to be only a few million years.
Ultraviolet observations have proved that to produce such great winds the pressure of hot gases in a corona, which drives the solar wind, is not enough. Instead, the winds of the hot stars must be driven directly by the pressure of the energetic ultraviolet radiation emitted by these stars. Aside from the simple realization that copious quantities of ultraviolet radiation flow from such hot stars, the details of the process are not well understood. Whatever is going on, it is surely complex, for the ultraviolet spectra of the stars tend to vary with time, implying that the wind is not steady. In an effort to understand better the variations in the rate of flow, theorists are investigating possible kinds of instabilities that might be peculiar to luminous hot stars.
Observations made with radio and infrared telescopes as well as with optical instruments prove that luminous cool stars also have winds whose total mass-flow rates are comparable to those of the luminous hot stars, though their velocities are much lower—about 30 km (20 miles) per second. Because luminous red stars are inherently cool objects (having a surface temperature of about 3,000 K, or half that of the Sun), they emit very little detectable ultraviolet or X-ray radiation; thus, the mechanism driving the winds must differ from that in luminous hot stars. Winds from luminous cool stars, unlike those from hot stars, are rich in dust grains and molecules. Since nearly all stars more massive than the Sun eventually evolve into such cool stars, their winds, pouring into space from vast numbers of stars, provide a major source of new gas and dust in interstellar space, thereby furnishing a vital link in the cycle of star formation and galactic evolution. As in the case of the hot stars, the specific mechanism that drives the winds of the cool stars is not understood; at this time, investigators can only surmise that gas turbulence, magnetic fields, or both in the atmospheres of these stars are somehow responsible.
Strong winds also are found to be associated with objects called protostars, which are huge gas balls that have not yet become full-fledged stars in which energy is provided by nuclear reactions (see below Star formation and evolution). Radio and infrared observations of deuterium (heavy hydrogen) and carbon monoxide (CO) molecules in the Orion Nebula have revealed clouds of gas expanding outward at velocities approaching 100 km (60 miles) per second. Furthermore, high-resolution, very-long-baseline interferometry observations have disclosed expanding knots of natural maser (coherent microwave) emission of water vapour near the star-forming regions in Orion, thus linking the strong winds to the protostars themselves. The specific causes of these winds remain unknown, but if they generally accompany star formation, astronomers will have to consider the implications for the early solar system. After all, the Sun was presumably once a protostar too.