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      Question: What is the standard design for chess sets used in international competitions?
      Answer: Only sets based on the Staunton design are allowed in international chess competitions.
      Question: Who won the first Women’s World Chess Championship organized by FIDE (Fédération Internationale des échecs)?
      Answer: Russian-born British international chess master Vera Menchik-Stevenson won the first Women’s World Chess Championship, a tournament organized by FIDE in 1927, and the next six women’s championship tournaments (1930–39).
      Question: Who was the first woman to become an International Grandmaster in chess?
      Answer: Georgian Nona Gaprindashvili, who held the Women’s World Chess Championship title for 16 years beginning in 1962, became in 1980 the first woman to earn the title of International Grandmaster.
      Question: Who was the first Soviet master to win the World Chess Championship?
      Answer: Mikhail Botvinnik was the first Soviet master to win the World Chess Championship. He popularized a variation of the French Defense in which Black exchanges a good bishop in order to ruin White’s pawn structure.
      Question: In chess, what is a move available to a pawn when an enemy pawn on an adjoining file advances two squares on its initial move and could have been captured had it moved only one square?
      Answer: An unmoved pawn has the option of moving one or two squares forward. This is the reason for a peculiar option, called en passant—that is, in passing—available to a pawn when an enemy pawn on an adjoining file advances two squares on its initial move and could have been captured had it moved only one square.
      Question: What ancient game is regarded as the earliest precursor of modern-day chess?
      Answer: The game chaturanga was flourishing in northwestern India by the 7th century and is regarded as the earliest precursor of modern chess because it had two key features found in all later chess variants—different pieces had different powers (unlike checkers and go), and victory was based on one piece, the king of modern chess.
      Question: Which of these games is a Japanese form of chess?
      Answer: Shogi is the Japanese form of chess, the history of which is obscure. Traditionally, it is thought to have originated in India and to have been transmitted to Japan via China and Korea.
      Question: What was established in 1924 as the first permanent international chess federation?
      Answer: Representatives of 15 countries met in Paris in 1924 to organize the first permanent international chess federation, known as FIDE, the French acronym for Fédération Internationale des échecs.
      Question: In 1958, who became the youngest chess player ever to attain the rank of grandmaster?
      Answer: American chess master Bobby Fischer became the youngest grandmaster in history when he received the title in 1958; he had been born in 1943. Fischer learned the moves of chess at age 6 and dropped out of high school at 16 to devote himself fully to the game.
      Question: What computer was the first to win a game of chess against a world champion under standard playing conditions?
      Answer: In 1996 the computer Deep Blue faced world chess champion Gary Kasparov in a six-game match. Deep Blue won the first game, but Kasparov modified his style and turned the later games into strategic battles in which evaluation was more important than calculation. He won three and drew two of the remaining games to win the match 4–2. In a six-game rematch held in 1997, an upgraded Deep Blue was able to consider an average of 200 million positions per second, twice its previous speed. Its algorithm for considering positions was also improved with advice from human grandmasters. By adopting a new set of conservative openings, Kasparov forced Deep Blue out of much of its prematch preparation. After resigning the second game, in a position later found to be drawable, Kasparov said he “never recovered” psychologically. With the match tied at one win, one loss, and three draws, Deep Blue won the decisive final game in 19 moves.
      Question: What term is used to describe a situation in which a chess player not in check has no legal moves?
      Answer: A stalemate describes a situation in which a chess player not in check has no legal moves.
      Question: In chess, what is the name given to the compound move of the king and the rook?
      Answer: The one exception to the rule that a player may move only one piece at a time is a compound move of king and rook called castling. A player castles by shifting the king two squares in the direction of a rook, which is then placed on the square the king has crossed.
      Question: Which chess master is considered to have been the world champion longer than any other player, holding the title from 1866 until 1894?
      Answer: Austrian American chess master Wilhelm Steinitz is considered to have been the world champion longer than any other player, winning the championship in 1866 from Adolf Anderssen (although the first official claim to hold the title was not made until 1886) and losing it in 1894 to Emanuel Lasker.
      Question: Who was the first woman to write a book on chess, titled The ABC of Chess?
      Answer: Women were often barred from the coffeehouses and taverns where chess clubs developed in the 19th century, and women players achieved distinction separately from men by the middle of that century. The first chess clubs specifically for women were organized in the Netherlands in 1847. The first chess book written by a woman, The ABC of Chess, by “A Lady” (H.I. Cooke), appeared in England in 1860 and went into 10 editions.
      Chess pieces on game board.

      Check and Checkmate Quiz

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