Poland is a place of many modern and historical monuments of architectural and historical importance. Some of them are UNESCO World Heritage sites, including Malbork Castle. Learn why you should visit these 10 buildings in this list.
Earlier versions of the descriptions of these buildings first appeared in 1001 Buildings You Must See Before You Die, edited by Mark Irving (2016). Writers’ names appear in parentheses.
Basilica of St. Mary
In 1343, after permission was granted by the Grand Master of the Teutonic Order Ludolf Konig of Wattzau, a foundation stone was laid to commence the 159-year construction of a new parish church in Gdańsk. The first phase, completed in 1361, produced a modest structure subsequently incorporated into the west part of the basilica proper. Between 1379 and 1447 a major extension was constructed, including the transept, presbytery, and raised bell tower. Erection of external walls and internal vaulting completed the third phase of the project in 1502.
The Basilica of St. Mary is built on a Latin cross plan with a 346-feet-long (105 m) triple-aisled nave and 217-feet-wide (66 m) transept. The verticality is emphasized by a 269-feet-tall (82 m) bell tower, seven steeply pointed pinnacles, and pointed arch windows. It provides a good balance to the heavy, horizontal mass of the nave, capable of accommodating a 20,000-strong congregation. The internal location of buttresses breaks up the basilica’s long elevations into a row of flanking chapels; the resulting smooth wall surfaces on the external facades are punctuated by the regular pattern of the 37 stained-glass windows. The most conspicuous window is positioned on the east elevation and covers an area of 1,367 square feet (416 sq m). The refined quality of the architecture is matched by intricate net-and-crystal ceiling vaults, elevated to 98 feet (30 m) above the stone flooring by 27 columns. The basilica is a prime example of brick architecture and the largest church in the world expressed in this material. It is also one of the largest brick Gothic buildings in Europe. The brilliance of French Gothic cathedrals is clearly evoked here—not with stone, but with simple modular blocks. (Bartek Kumor)
Spodek Multipurpose Arena
The period after World War II saw a dynamic campaign instigated by the communist regime in Poland to construct superior modern structures that would represent the country’s new era. Katowice—the new center of Upper Silesia—needed a distinctive building to mark its identity. The Association of Polish Architects organized a competition for a multipurpose hall.
The jury was so amazed by the winning entry that the proposal was eventually realized in the very center of the city, rather than on its outskirts. The clarity of the concept is striking—the floor plan is circular, 472 feet (144 m) in diameter. The elevated mass of the building resembles an inverted cone with its apex buried underground and the base cut off at an oblique plane. Triggered by requirements such as the rake of the seating and multipurpose usage, the design led to a remarkable tilted effect. The tensegrity method, relying on self-stressed structural components in a closed system, was employed to hold up a 300-ton steel dome by means of 120 lightweight trusses.
This building, completed in 1971, is a pioneering work of modern engineering and architecture, and it has become a key reference in the later development of the light roof structures now called “Geiger’s domes.” It preceded the structural methods and scale found in many later buildings. (Bartek Kumor)
Chapel of King Sigismund I
The year 1500 marks the beginning of the Golden Age in Poland, a period of unrivaled cultural, social, and scientific development in the country’s history. The marriage of the Polish king Sigismund I to Bona from the Milanese Sforza dynasty brought about an explosion of Renaissance art and initiated an influx of renowned Italian artists to Poland. A significant number of notable designs were conceived during this era—the Chapel of King Sigismund I, contained within the royal castle complex on Wawel Hill in Kraków, being the most outstanding of these magnificent buildings constructed in the 16th century. Designed as one of 18 tomb chapels flanking the Wawel Cathedral, its floorplan is based on a shallow Greek cross and houses the tombs of King Sigismund I and his children as well as Sigismund II Augustus and Anne the Jagiellon. Its upper section, a stone octagonal drum punctuated by circular windows, supports a gold-finished dome topped with a glazed lantern, and a cross. The identical design of three internal walls, reminiscent of a Classical triumphal arch, includes ornamental scenes from Roman mythology. Numerous sculptures, medallions, stuccoes, and paintings executed by eminent Renaissance artists complete this architectural gem. Inside and out, this finely proportioned chapel constitutes one of the best-preserved examples of the essence of Renaissance style in architecture. (Bartek Kumor)
Manggha Center of Japanese Art and Technology
In 1987 the Polish film director and long-time Japanese art enthusiast Andrzej Wajda decided to donate his Kyoto Prize, awarded by the Japanese government in recognition of a lifetime’s achievement in cinematography, to help in the realization of a new project—the Manggha Center of Japanese Art and Technology, to be built in Kraków. It was completed in 1994.
Clad in sandstone, the building was erected to promote cultural and technological interchange between Japan and Poland, and it houses a collection of Japanese art, formerly owned and subsequently donated to the National Museum in Kraków by art collector Feliks Jasieński. The center, located on the bank of the Vistula River and overlooking Wawel Castle, contains exhibition space, a multipurpose conference complex, offices, and an auditorium for concert and theater productions. The interior blends two dissimilar cultures by combining the Japanese architectural references of functional layout, carefully designed vistas, and the somber ambience of 17th-century shogun castles with extensive use of typical local building materials of timber and brick.
The building’s neutral typology is devoid of any obvious idiosyncrasies; however, on longer viewing, the structure appears subtly touched by both Polish and Japanese traditions. Gently undulating curves of the roof create a wave leitmotif, depicting the flow of the Vistula River in a contextual and symbolic sense, and being simultaneously reminiscent of the series of prints Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji by Japanese ukiyo-e artist Hokusai. (Bartek Kumor)
The Teutonic Knights were descended from the Brotherhood of the Hospitaliers and were originally a spiritual order before being transformed into a military organization. It soon began to play an important role in European politics with the intention of founding its own state. In 1309 the Grand Master Sigfried von Feuchtwangen moved the capital of the Teutonic Order from Venice to a monastery at Malbork. The fortified monastery, constructed in the preceding three decades, was due for redevelopment.
The subsequent periods of construction only truly finished with the purchase of the castle by the Polish king in 1457, by which time the fortress had become the most powerful in Europe. It is divided into three main sections, the High, Middle, and Low castles. The High Castle is an extraordinary fortress defended by multiple circuits of moats and curtain walling dotted with numerous towers. The Middle Castle consists of the former bailey converted into residential quarters, the Infirmary, the fan-vaulted Great Refectory, and the Great Masters’ Residence. The castle underwent a further program of improvements that took another century to complete, involving enlargement of the Low Castle area, which included St. Lawrence’s Church, workshops, an armory, stables, and other buildings.
The complex is beautifully executed in brick with figurative friezes, fine window traceries, and sculpted portals, all built on an imposing scale. Malbork Castle is one of the largest brick structures ever built, and it was made a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1997. (Bartek Kumor)
After its opening in 2003, the Krzywy Domek (Crooked House) became one of the most recognizable landmarks of the small town of Sopot in northern Poland. It is located on a popular thoroughfare boasting the town’s best selection of bars, restaurants, and shops. The house won the Big Dreamers’ Award, and it was said to be inspired by the work of the renowned Polish fairy-tale illustrator Jan Marcin Szancer and the Swedish artist and Sopot resident Per Dahlberg. A 43,000-square-foot (3,994 sq m) floorplan accommodates a variety of uses including commercial office space, retail units, food and drink facilities, a covered market, and a museum. Although the structure follows the building line and scale of the street, this is where any contextual constraints end. The external envelope appears to be its own reflection in a rippled water mirror. Curvaceously bent lines, a bloated roof, luscious cornice and frieze, and distorted door and window openings together create an illusion equal to that of stepping into a Surrealist painting. The turning-and-twisting nature of the building seems to be caught in a momentary stillness. The selection of materials for the facade highlights the building’s quirkiness—the street-facing elevations are clad in limestone, while the use of glimmering blue enameled tiles convincingly animates the undulating curves of the roof. (Bartek Kumor)
Palace of Culture and Science
Warsaw’s Palace of Culture—originally known as the Joseph Stalin Palace of Culture and Science—was a “gift” from the Soviet Union to Poland. It was built during the early 1950s, when the USSR was asserting its influence over every sphere of life in Poland as well as in other states in eastern and central Europe. The Soviets originally proposed a university based on Moscow State University, a monumental Stalinist edifice designed by Lev Rudnev. However, the Poles expressed a preference for a center of culture and science. While the building’s function changed, the style and tower-centric form were retained. Rudnev led a team of four architects on the design of the 754-foot-high (230 m) skyscraper—the height includes the 140-foot (43 m) spire. In its “wedding cake” composition, Gothic trappings, and monumental scale, the Palace of Culture is classically Stalinist. However, much of the detail, including 550 ornamental sculptures, was inspired by Polish design convention. Construction lasted 1,175 days and was carried out by 7,000 workers—3,500 from Poland and 3,500 from the Soviet Union. The building contains 3,288 rooms over 42 floors, including cinemas, theaters, and museums. From the beginning, the structure was highly controversial; to the residents of Warsaw, it was inescapable evidence of Soviet domination. Today it has many uses, including as an exhibition center and office complex. (Adam Mornement)
Chapel of St. Kinga
Salt manufacturing in Wieliczka began about 3500 BCE, and rock salt was first mined there in the 13th century. Spread over nine levels, the Wieliczka mine, which is now a historic site no longer involved in commercial mining, reaches to a depth of 210 feet (327 m), housing 186 miles (300 km) of galleries with works of art, chapels, and statues sculpted in the salt.
St. Kinga’s Chapel—St. Kinga is the patron saint of the local miners—is the largest of the chapels in the mine, located 331 feet (101 m) below the surface. It is literally carved out of the salt rock and decorated with sculptures, bas-reliefs, and chandeliers made from salt crystals. Even the floor is made from salt, but it has been carved so that it appears to be a tiled surface.
Work began on the chapel in 1896. It is 39 feet (12 m) in height, 178 feet (54 m) long, and 59 feet (18 m) wide. The chapel is the work of miner-sculptors, most notably Józef Markowski. Together with fellow miners, Markowski created an altar in the presbytery that contains sculptures of St. Joseph and St. Clement. Sculptures of the crucified Christ, kneeling monks, and the Virgin Mary were placed on the right and left sides of the chapel. He later created a vestry, pulpit, and side altar. In 1918 the chapel’s salt chandeliers were adapted for electric current. Józef Markowski’s younger brother Tomasz continued the work from 1920 to 1927, with additional bas-reliefs, and more were added by Antoni Wyrodek, who worked in the chapel from 1927 to 1963. (Carol King)
On June 28, 1911, the final decision was made to build a multipurpose hall—or Jahrhunderthalle—for the city of Breslau that could house exhibitions, sports events, and public rallies. (Breslau, in Germany, became Wroc?aw, in Poland, in 1945.) The building, designed by architect Max Berg, is set on a quatrefoil plan, with a centrally positioned, circular, 426-footwide (130 m) hall connected by a double-ring foyer to 56 auxiliary exhibition spaces offset outward. Each side of the floorplan’s main axis is marked by an entrance hall with the main west access point, facing the city center, emphasized by double-story height, and an oval floor. The stepped form of the dome enabled the insertion of a virtually uninterrupted area of exotic hardwood-framed windows, which let in natural light. To provide appropriate acoustic conditions, the walls are partially constructed of concrete mixed with wood or cork. The elevations’ concrete finish, textured with the imprints of wooden shuttering, adds to the brutal charm of the building. It has a well-deserved place in the annals of architecture because of its unprecedented and inventive use of reinforced concrete in a dome spanning 213 feet (65 m)—at the time of construction, it was the largest of its kind in the world. This pioneering structure marks a turning point in the exploitation of new construction methods. UNESCO recognized the building’s character by listing it as a World Heritage site in 2006. (Bartek Kumor)
Kameleon Department Store
The architect Erich Mendelsohn belonged to the most eminent group of pioneers of Modernism, along with Le Corbusier, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, and Walter Gropius. His talent propelled the realization of several ingenious buildings that defied contemporary trends and technical obstacles, often fusing simplicity with sophistication. His motto—“The primary element is function. But function without a sensual component remains construction”—resonates in his design for a former Petersdorff department store in what is today Wroc?aw.
The building’s volume delights with its elegant boldness and uncompromising modern appearance. The facade is made up of horizontal bands of travertine cladding, broken up by bronze cornices, and enormous areas of glazing covering the best part of the elevation. The horizontality of the mass culminates with a gracefully curved-glass corner overhanging the street intersection. The building, completed in 1928, was designed to turn into a gleaming beacon at night using a sophisticated lighting system of slot fittings placed under windows, combined with bright-colored curtains made of highly reflective fabric and illuminated from inside. The interior complements the external form with a variety of high-quality materials ranging from white Japanese lacquer to mahogany, and it benefits from a functional layout maximizing the natural light inside. (Bartek Kumor)