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      Agriculture & Agricultural Technology

      Agriculture, the active production of useful plants or animals in ecosystems that have been created by people. Agriculture has often been conceptualized narrowly, in terms of specific combinations of activities and organisms—wet-rice production in Asia, wheat farming in Europe, cattle ranching in the Americas, and the like—but a more holistic perspective holds that humans are environmental engineers who disrupt terrestrial habitats in specific ways.

      Agriculture & Agricultural Technology Encyclopedia Articles

      Featured Articles

      Farm machinery
      Farm machinery, mechanical devices, including tractors and implements, used in farming to save labour. Farm machines include a great variety of devices with a wide range of complexity: from simple hand-held implements used since prehistoric times to the complex harvesters of modern mechanized...
      Encyclopedia / Agriculture & Agricultural Technology
      combine harvester
      Crop rotation
      Crop rotation, the successive cultivation of different crops in a specified order on the same fields, in contrast to a one-crop system or to haphazard crop successions. Throughout human history, wherever food crops have been produced, some kind of rotation cropping appears to have been practiced. ...
      Encyclopedia / Agriculture & Agricultural Technology
      Agricultural technology
      Agricultural technology, application of techniques to control the growth and harvesting of animal and vegetable products. Mechanical processing of soil so that it is in the proper physical condition for planting is usually referred to as tilling; adding nutrients and trace elements is called...
      Encyclopedia / Agriculture & Agricultural Technology
      contour farming; strip cropping
      Origins of agriculture
      Origins of agriculture, the active production of useful plants or animals in ecosystems that have been created by people. Agriculture has often been conceptualized narrowly, in terms of specific combinations of activities and organisms—wet-rice production in Asia, wheat farming in Europe, cattle...
      Encyclopedia / Agriculture & Agricultural Technology
      farm
      Collectivization
      Collectivization, policy adopted by the Soviet government, pursued most intensively between 1929 and 1933, to transform traditional agriculture in the Soviet Union and to reduce the economic power of the kulaks (prosperous peasants). Under collectivization the peasantry were forced to give up their...
      Encyclopedia / Agriculture & Agricultural Technology
      Joseph Stalin
      Terrace cultivation
      Terrace cultivation, method of growing crops on sides of hills or mountains by planting on graduated terraces built into the slope. Though labour-intensive, the method has been employed effectively to maximize arable land area in variable terrains and to reduce soil erosion and water loss. In most...
      Encyclopedia / Agriculture & Agricultural Technology
      terraced vineyard
      Aquaculture
      Aquaculture, an approximate equivalent in fishing to agriculture—that is, the rearing of fish, shellfish, and some aquatic plants to supplement the natural supply. Fish are reared under controlled conditions all over the world. Fish may be confined in earth ponds, concrete pools, barricaded coastal...
      Encyclopedia / Agriculture & Agricultural Technology
      aquaculture: Faroese fish farm
      Organic farming
      Organic farming, agricultural system that uses ecologically based pest controls and biological fertilizers derived largely from animal and plant wastes and nitrogen-fixing cover crops. Modern organic farming was developed as a response to the environmental harm caused by the use of chemical...
      Encyclopedia / Agriculture & Agricultural Technology
      organic farming
      Livestock farming
      Livestock farming, raising of animals for use or for pleasure. In this article, the discussion of livestock includes both beef and dairy cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, horses, mules, asses, buffalo, and camels; the raising of birds commercially for meat or eggs (i.e., chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese,...
      Encyclopedia / Agriculture & Agricultural Technology
      Hereford cattle
      Crop
      Crop, In agriculture, a plant or plant product that can be grown and harvested extensively for profit or subsistence. By use, crops fall into six categories: food crops, for human consumption (e.g., wheat, potatoes); feed crops, for livestock consumption (e.g., oats, alfalfa); fibre crops, for...
      Encyclopedia / Agriculture & Agricultural Technology
      Poultry farming
      Poultry farming, raising of birds domestically or commercially, primarily for meat and eggs but also for feathers. Chickens, turkeys, ducks, and geese are of primary importance, while guinea fowl and squabs (young pigeons) are chiefly of local interest. This article treats the principles and...
      Encyclopedia / Agriculture & Agricultural Technology
      poultry farm
      Beekeeping
      Beekeeping, care and management of colonies of honeybees. They are kept for their honey and other products or their services as pollinators of fruit and vegetable blossoms or as a hobby. The practice is widespread: honeybees are kept in large cities and villages, on farms and rangelands, in forests...
      Encyclopedia / Agriculture & Agricultural Technology
      Body plan of a honeybee.

      Agriculture & Agricultural Technology Encyclopedia Articles

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